This note is in response to Nityananda's wild incursions into the hallowed realms of science. It describes the vedic theory of the physical universe. The fact that this theory cannot be proved should not affect its acceptance by the faithful, since there is plenty of supporting evidence provided by the observations made for the currently popular theories. This theory is simple to understand; all you need is a knowledge of Newton’s laws and high school math.
To start with, there is Matter and Space. Energy and Time will be explained subsequently.
Matter is stuff that we can touch and feel. It has mass. Matter makes up molecules, atoms and all the sub atomic particles that are still being discovered.
Space is the stuff that we cannot touch or see. Space is everywhere where matter isn’t. Think of space as a fluid that permeates the universe. It has volume but no mass. It offers no resistance to anything passing through it. Vacuum contains space. In some situations, space will appear to be elastic, i.e. compressible and stretchable, but it really is not. In the universe, there seems to be a lot more space than matter.
Matter exists in points of space and usually does not move about. The distance between points can be measured and we can imagine a 3D coordinate system based on some frame of reference. The coordinates mark specific points of the space. Just like an elastic ruler, the distance between the coordinate markers will stretch when the space is stretched.
Matter and space interact. Matter “consumes” space. Think of matter as a drain hole in the 3D universe that constantly sucks in space. The more mass there is in a clump of matter, the faster it attracts and consumes space.
Let us visualize this process first using an analogy, and we will explain it more accurately later. As space gets sucked in, imagine that it flows towards the matter like a fluid. Matter in that fluid goes with the flow, much like a cork moving with a stream. This causes clumps of matter that are close together to be “attracted”. We call this Gravity. Note that if there are two clumps of matter, both consume the space between them in proportion to their own mass and cause the attraction. This is consistent with the observed Law of Gravitation.
F = G . m1 . m2 / r2
This formula calculates the Force of attraction between two bodies. It is also the force that two bodies exert on each other when they are in contact and cannot come any closer. We call this Weight.
The analogy of fluids is used only to visualize the theory. Let us continue to use it to explain the r2 term in the denominator. The distance between the center of masses of the two clumps of matter is denoted by r. Imagine a virtual sphere with radius r centered around one of the bodies. The surface area of this sphere is 4 π r2. All the space that is getting sucked into the body has to go through this area. Now imagine another sphere inside it with the same center, but with a radius of r/2. The surface area of this sphere is π r2, one fourth of the outer sphere. Given that volumetric rate of space passing through the two surfaces is the same, it follows that the velocity of space at the inner surface is 4 times the velocity at the outer surface. Any matter floating in the space flow will have the same velocities. This again is consistent with the observed velocity profile of objects falling towards the Earth and with the inverse square formula above. The flow of space accelerates as it gets closer to the center of the mass. To summarize, all bodies of matter in the universe consume space and exhibit a gravitational “force” on other nearby bodies. However, according to this theory, gravity is not a real force, but just the side effect of space getting consumed.
But where does all that space go after it is consumed by matter? The consumed space is “reborn” somewhere else and is uniformly regenerated throughout the universe. When space appears between two bodies, the distance between them increases. This matches the observation that the universe is expanding. Also, the further apart two bodies are, the more space there is between them, and more space is generated. Hence bodies far away appear to be accelerating away faster. This phenomenon brings together nearby bodies and drives apart distant bodies. This fits in with Hubbell’s observations which won him a Nobel prize. However, the observed velocities of galaxies will not always fit a simple equation that uses the Hubbell's constant because there may be other random galaxies in between that are consuming the generated space.
Light, an electromagnetic wave, is one form of energy. Light propagates through space in pretty much a straight line. However, gravitational lenses have been observed where light bends. This observation has a simple explanation. Large masses cause space to flow towards them and this causes light passing through to be bent in the direction of the flow. Imagine a boat trying to cross a flowing river. Even if it maintains a steady heading across the river, an external observer in a helicopter would see the boat move in an angled path. If the river flow was faster in the middle, the path of the boat would be curved. To get to a point directly across the river, the boat would have to follow a curved path. The same thing happens in space since space flows faster closer to the mass. Thus, Gravitational Lensing is easy enough to be understood by a village boatman.
Black holes occur when the speed of the space consumed by the body, exceeds the velocity of light. This is like a boat trying to go up stream in a river whose flow exceeds the maximum speed of the boat. Imagine a sphere around the body. At some radius of that sphere, the velocity of space falling in will equal the velocity of light trying to come out. That sphere is called the Event Horizon and light will never come out of it. Conversely, when light moves with the flow of space, it follows that the effective speed of light increases, like the ground speed of an aircraft moving with a tail wind. However, the relative speed of light, as observed by a point in space, will be constant. The space consumed by the Black hole will pop up somewhere else, just like space consumed by any other mass.
Another scenario where the velocity of space exceeds that of light occurs very far away, at the edge of the “visible” universe. The further away we get, the faster space is moving away. At some point, the velocity of space will exceed that of light. We cannot see beyond that range because light from there will never get to us. A sphere with that radius is another Event Horizon.
When scientists observed that the universe was expanding, they calculated the rate of expansion. Then they located the most distant stars and extrapolated backwards to determine when the size of the universe would have been exactly zero. This was deemed to be the age of the universe according to the Big Bang Theory. Nobody has a theory for what happened before that point of time, which seems quite lame. Our theory has a different explanation. There could be billions and billions of galaxies beyond the Event Horizon that we cannot see. Thus, we do not have enough information to compute the age of the universe, other than to say that the minimum age is as computed according to the Big Bang Theory. The universe has no beginning and no end. Also, it always seems that we are at the center of the universe because most other galaxies are moving away.
Matter is just condensed energy. Anti matter is like matter, just a different kind. It too has mass that converts to energy. When energy condenses, it forms equal amounts of matter and anti matter. The conversion of matter to energy and vice versa is described by the famous equation:
E = m . c2
This formula is derived easily. Energy travels at the speed of light c. As Newton postulated, the kinetic energy of mass moving at the speed of light is 1/2 . m . c2. This accounts for half the energy. The other half comes from an equal mass of anti-matter that is required to convert matter to energy. It has been difficult for scientists to convert mass into energy simply because anti-matter is hard to come by in our part of the universe. In most cases, anti-matter spontaneously combines with matter to emit a flash of energy. In the reverse direction, energy condenses to matter relatively rarely, and hence there is a lot more energy permeating space than there is matter.
Hence, the universe fundamentally consists of Space and Energy, which are mutually interdependent. They correspond to the yoni /lingam or the yin/yang. Energy needs space to travel. Space enters condensed energy and is reincarnated somewhere else. The universe goes on. There is no need for extra dimensions and fancy math to explain things.
The way electromagnetic energy moves through a medium also has a simple explanation. The observed speed of light varies depending on the medium. Light moves fastest through space, but is slower through other medium. This is because other media consist of atoms, which are particles of matter. Like other matter, these particles absorb space and cause light to bend, like gravitational lensing in a small scale. Light passing through such media will follow a wiggly path that is longer than a straight line, and hence will take longer. This causes the observed speed of light to be slower. Atoms with higher mass will induce more bending and will reduce the speed more than lighter atoms, as will a denser packing of atoms. The term 'speed' was deliberately used instead of the usual term 'velocity' because the instantaneous direction of traversal varies.
Light travels in a straight line through uniform media. Snell's law describes the path in non-uniform media and states that the light path bends when the refractive index of the media changes. The refractive index of a media is directly related to the speed of light in the media. Fermat correctly explained Snell's Law by stating that light was simply following the path that took the least elapsed time. Unfortunately, he did not explain why light was in such a hurry. That explanation had to wait a couple of centuries for Darwin to discover the natural laws of selection of the fittest. The presence or absence of light at any instant is a signal, like a bit of information. The earliest arriving information is the best and is naturally selected, all duplicated information arriving later is useless and fades to extinction. Alternative theories have postulated parallel universes, but how many universes do you see around you? Also, the three dimensions that we observe are quite enough.
The concept of Time is also easily explained. There is no grand celestial clock that keeps time in the universe. Instead, each point in space has its own independent clock. Each clock's time depends on the rate at which information arrives at a point. Energy, and consequently information, from all over the universe arrive at each point at different times. Each clock's ticks count the information. More information, the clock runs faster; less information and time slows down at that point. There are billions and billions of ticks in each human nano-second.
If there was a way to block all information arriving at a point, perhaps with something akin to a perfect Faraday cage, then time would stand still in the space inside the cage. It would be a Stasis box. A person entering it could emerge billions of years later without having aged, or gained any wisdom.
Entropy increases as the universe expands and shuffles itself. This is related to the amount of information, which is also increasing. It follows that the amount of information arriving at any point is increasing, on the average. Hence time is speeding up. Things that took a long time eons ago, are now happening more quickly.
Time will slow down near a large mass. As described earlier, when there is a large mass, the surrounding space will accelerate towards it. Light (aka information) propagating in that space is also accelerated. However, less light will reach a point in space that is close to the mass. Imagine two points near a large mass, at different distances from it. Imagine light propagating towards the mass, from one point to the other. Space at the point closer to the mass will be moving faster. Light from the point further away will be chasing after the other point which is racing away. Of course, light moves fast, and it will reach its target, but the rate at which light arrives at that point will be reduced. Hence time slows down there. The passage of time is a function of the mass of star system in which it is measured. Our concept of time is influenced by the mass of our solar system.
Distances will be affected by a large mass. To an observer who is far away from the rapid flow of space into a heavy mass, light moving along with the flowing space will appear to speed up. Since they are far away and not in the speeding space, time does not slow down for the observer. However, to maintain the illusion of the speed of light being constant, the distances near the mass will seem to shrink. It is reasonable to think that space and its dimensions get compressed around the mass. In other words, when light is being pushed to go faster, the definition of distance must be changed so that a distant observer will perceive it at the standard speed. This also is consistent with the popular view that gravity warps space-time.
The big question that hasn't been answered is: why is the perceived speed of light constant? This is left as an exercise for the reader. One clue, the speed at which space enters matter at the final point of contact is c.
If you got this far, I hope you were amused, this is was to be the basis for my video to compete with Nityananda. I shall call myself Nutyananda and plan on sitting on a highly decorated commode (throne), bare chested, with mystical white spots painted on my chest, while I lay forth my discourse on this subject. However, the theory hangs together remarkably well.
All in fun...
(c) Raj, Jan 2019